Management of health for people with mental retardation

The causes and conditions of mental retardation are various . Therefore in managing the health of persons with mental retardation , we should  remember

that there great individual differences  among them . moreover  , because

in many cases , people with mental retardation are not able to explain

their health problems  to us , we must be  alert so we  do not fail to discover

even a  slight  health  change  , and  we must  be  sure  to  take prompt  care

of  any  health  problems  .

Though people  with  mental  retardation  may  have  a  poor  ability  to

explain  things  in  wards  , they   can   explain their  health  condition  by

  means  of  their  whole  body  >  so  if  we  do not  neglect  to  watch  them ,

we  will  be  able  to  know where  their  disease is ,  and bad it is , there  are

two  kinds  of health  observations ;

   – One  is  chosen  because  of  some  particular need .

  – the  other  is  for  routine  use ,

Because   people   with  mental  retardation  have  many  handicapped

besides  their  intellectual  handicaps  , we  need  to  make  sure  where

 their  problem are ,  useful methods  for detecting  health  problems  include

the  questionnaire  that checks  on the health  of  three – years – old children

the  chick list  of  constitutional trends  and  various  psychological  and

developmental  scales .

We  should  use these  whenever they  are  needed .

I  addition , we  should  make  observe  their  health  routinely  , such  as

when they  get  up in  the  morning  ,  in  the  morning  – ceremony line  ,

and  at  mealtimes  .  Hear  are four  points  to watch  both for  efficiency

and  to  avoid  failure  .

   A – Observe the  person’s  general condition , mainly  their  mood , if

   they  are   active  or  not ,  generally  speaking   , if  they  are  able  to  smile

   even  though  they  are  sick  ,  their  condition  not  be  bad .

   It  has  been   said  for  long  time  that eating  well  ,  sleeping   well   ,and

   defecating well  are  signs of  good  health . Meals , sleep  and defecation ,

  are important  keys  to  their  condition . When they eat with  a  good

  appetite  , sleep soundly ,  and  defecate  regularly  , we  can  consider

  them to  be   healthy  . Of  course    there  are   gender  and   individual

   variations  .  And   even  within  one  person , there   could  be  vareiations

  because of  age , so  we should  know  how  each  person is doing  on the

 key points ” nice meal , nice sleep , and  nice  defecation ” .

 B – Regularly  measure   their  temperature , respiration   rate , pules , and

  blood  pressure  .  For  example , the  temperature  of  healthy  infants  is

  a   little  bit  higher  than  that  of  adults  .  We  should  record  regularly

  morning , noon , and in the evening .

   – C – Pay  attention  to  slight  symptoms that  tell us  about  the beginning

  of  an   illness   , it is  important  for  us  to  notice  the  beginning   of   illness

  as  early as  possible  , by means  of  a  little  cough , eye   mucus  , or

  congestion  of  the  eyeballs .  Thus when  we  observe   only  the  condition

  of  the  whole  body  ,   we  may  be  in  trouble  because  of  something  left

   unnoticed  , unless  we  look  as  fully as  we  can  into  the  condition of

   of  each  part  of  the  body  during  changing  the  clothes  or  having  a

    path  we  should  observe  effectively  .

   And  must  pay  attention  if  we  notice  that  they  have  reddened  arias,

   eruption dropsy , swellings , or  internal bleeding  or  if  they  feel  hot

  or  cold .

    Besides  these  the  most important  among the  systemic  symptoms  to

  watch  for   is   dehydration   ,  continuous diarrhea  or  vomiting  causes

  the  eyes  or  sink  deeply , the lips , mouth and  skin  to  be  dry ,  olso

  the  gloss  or  tension  of  the  skin disappears   and  the  skin  seems  dusty

  these  are very  dangerous symptoms .

  D –  Pay close  enough  attention  especially  to  fatigue ,  so  as  not  to be

   too  late  in  detecting  illnesses  . People  with  mental  retardation  rarly

  complain  about  their  own  condition .










Try this exercise ;

1- A  shopkeeper  offers you a pack  of video cassettes for 10$.

You  know there is a store  a few  minutes  drive  away where  you  can

get  exactly the same for 7$ – 30% less .

Would  you make  the journey ??

2-  A  shopkeeper  offers you a video – recorder  for 1000$ > You know

there is a store a few minutes drive away  where  you can get exactly the

same for 997$  -3% less  would you   make the journey ??

Most people say yes to question 1 and no to question 2 .

in the first case the motivation to go to the other store is not a purely

rational desire to save 3$.  A 3$     saving is available in the second case

too_ rationally the same reward for the same few minutes in your car.

The real motivation is something like: I wont enjoy using these video

tapes if  I feel i have been suckered

in the second case you are in the store face to face with the salesman and

about to spend big money on a luxury item.

Most people are disinclined to spoil the experience by acting like a


It is often difficult  to convince people that they act irrationally in

negotiations . participants on training courses usually insist to the

bitter end that all their moves are considered wise and purposeful. they

would drive around the block to save 30 per cent but not to save 0,3

per cent they say _ a rational distinction . but you do not carry

percentages in your pocket

          you carry money and for 3$ however you save it you can buy a cup of

          coffee and a piece of cheesecake .

Make allowances for your own irrationality

The opposite of  ” emotion ” is “logic or  “reason” . As has been noted  above we are  conditioned

in our professional  lives to respect reason , justify  our decisions on ground of logic , and

pretend that emotion has nothing  to do  with it >

But a negotiation is not an either -or situation . The rational  and emotional are interwind >

A rational approach will set the targets  for  a negotiation , and measure its  outcome

in purely  material of  financial terms,  Yet  there is  a  value within  the  negotiation process

itself  – apparently  irrational value – which  can affect  the process and  the result .

This is  sometimes called transactional  value a sense of having got  a  fair  deal  can be  more

important  than rational  self-interest .

Will  continue ……………..

What is Down Syndrome ?


         Down Syndrome  is  a  genetic  condition  caused  by  extra  genetic

          material ( genes )  from  the   21st  chromosome  .  The extra   genes

           cause  certain  characteristics   that   we   know   as Down syndrome .

           Individuals  with  Down  syndrome   also  have  all  the  other  genes

            given  to  them   by  their   parents   .

             As  a  result  they  have  a  combination  of  features   typical  of  Down

              syndrome  on  top  of  the  individual  features  from  their  parents   .

             This  includes  some  degree  of mental  retardation   or  cognitive

             disability  and  other  developmental  delays   .  some  of  the  physical

             traits  that  are  common , but  not  always  present  are  epicanthal

            folds  over the  eyes  ,  flattened  bridge  of  the  nose  ,  a  single  palmar

            crease  and  decreased  muscle       tone  .

             Down syndrome  gets  its name  from  the  British  doctor , John

              Langdon Down, who  first  clinically identified  the  condition   in 1866

             The  actual  chromosomal  nature of  Down  syndrome  did  not become

              documented  until  1959 by  Dr.  Le jeune  .  However , Down ‘s name

             remains  associated  with  condition >

Also  though the term  has  nothing  whatever  to do  with  the  physical

direction ” Down ” .

Ann  Fortis  who has Down  syndrome  has  coined  the  term

” Up Syndrome ”   to  provide  a  different  perspective  on  the

condition  .

We don”t  know what  causes  the  extra  21st chromosome  .  We

know  that  the  extra  21st  chromosome an extra  dose  of  some

proteins  , which  cause  the  typical  features  of  Down syndrome

We  do”t   know  most of  the  proteins  involved  and  how  they cause

Down syndrome We  do know  there is an  association  between  a

mother`s age  and  the  chances  of   having  a baby  with  Down

syndrome .  No  causes  have  been  identified  and proven however .


Are you interested to know about ?

Special Education  is becoming world wide nowadays  for the need of such

field , first ; because of the development of the communities and their culter

of course  , since the world is becoming  small village , due to progress of

advanced connections (internet) , and other communications  .

second ; due to the increasing  attention  of  human rights  specially the rights of disable children .

the  UN declaration of the child rights is very clear in this aspect ,

Accordingly, the increased interest in this sensitive field that led the

universities to adopt advanced approaches to education and rehabilitation to

keep pace with progress in other fields . so   the students can obtain bachelor’s

and master’s and  PhD. degrees  This of course is reflected in the care and

education as well as rehabilitation services for children.And spread to nursing

homes , special schools  and  training centers  across the community  increased

interest of parents to send their children to these centers, and have become

closer to their children ,

and most of their needs,     NOT THIS WONDERFUL  ???